I surveyed Black-necked Storks Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus and Sarus Cranes Grus antigone in Etawah and Mainpuri districts, Uttar Pradesh, India, by carrying out counts at five wetlands and along a 105-km road transect each month from December 2000 to February 2002. The results were compared to the known population sizes in the area as determined from spot-mapping of territories. On average, road transects detected 17.9% of Black-necked Storks and 35% of territorial Sarus Crane pairs. Densities and encounter rates from road transect data correlated with known numbers of Black-necked Storks. For Black-necked Storks, pairs were more likely to be detected than families, whereas the converse was true for Sarus Cranes.Wetland sites held only 20.5% of Black-necked Storks and 8.9% of territorial Sarus Crane pairs (although wetlands held 65% of non-breeding cranes). Consequently, wetland counts alone were not found to be effective for surveying these two species. On average, they recorded only 1.3% of all Black-necked Stork pairs. Too few Sarus Crane pairs were reliably identifiable in wetlands to determine their sighting probability. Road transects that pass wetland sites and that are carried out in late winter will provide the most accurate data for both species.
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